The SCCS CO₂-EOR Joint Industry Project (JIP) has published the results from a collaborative programme of work to develop an understanding of CO₂-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), with the aim of creating a commercial use for CO₂ captured from power plants and industry. The project is led by SCCS partners and funding has been provided by the Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise, 2Co Energy Limited, Nexen and Shell.



  • 7.2 MB
  • 88pp

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CO₂-EOR technology, which has been used in North America for decades, involves injecting CO₂ into partially depleted oilfields deep beneath the seabed to force out additional volumes of oil, with the majority of the injected CO₂ remaining permanently stored deep underground. Although to date there has been no supply of CO₂ to support implementation of industrial scale CO₂-EOR in the North Sea, the large-scale development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) could change this.

This project has focused on addressing issues, which are of major importance to project developers looking to link CO₂-EOR in the North Sea with CCS projects. It has been undertaken as a series of work packages in two phases.

A total of 17 detailed reports have been produced covering a wide variety of topics. These are divided into six subcategories and are available to download below. The summary report brings all 17 pieces of work together in one publication.

Work packages and associated reports

CO₂–EOR - Summary Report



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  • 88pp

CO₂ storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery in the North Sea: Securing a low-carbon future for the UK

This report features two-page summary reports from each of the JIP work packages. It begins with key findings and a 12-page introduction describing the project and its results.




  • 1.4 MB
  • 19pp

CO₂-EOR in the UK: Analysis of fiscal incentives – Final Non-Technical Report

This work package looks at a range of fiscal incentives that could be used to incentivise industry to undertake CO₂-EOR.



  • 10.5 MB
  • 41pp

Techno-economic evaluation of CO₂-EOR in the North Sea

Additional financial analysis of CO₂-EOR to provide further insights into the effect of tax incentives.



  • 2.9 MB
  • 40pp

Preliminary Study on Developing Economic Multipliers for CO₂-EOR Activity

An initial examination of developing a multiplier for CO₂-EOR to examine and compare financial benefit.

Stakeholder Perceptions



  • 1 MB
  • 59pp

CO₂-EOR Stakeholder Perceptions and Policy Responses

This work package investigates the perceptions of key stakeholders in CO₂-EOR, including government, regulators, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the public.

EOR Performance



  • 6.6 MB
  • 33pp

Techno-Economic Reservoir Modelling

Reservoir modelling sensitivity analysis on a series of CO₂ injection scenarios and configurations based on Phase 1 work including simple CO₂; tandem CO₂; seawater; and Water Alternating Gas using CO₂ and seawater injection allowing comparison on the impact of CO₂-EOR with water flooding on hydrocarbon recovery and economic performance.

CO₂ management and environmental impacts



  • 2.9 MB
  • 62pp

Carbon Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil recovery

Estimating the carbon budget for different CO₂-EOR scenarios, taking account of the CO₂ injected, compared to the energy used and carbon released from the additional oil production.

  • 1.3 MB
  • 19pp

A Review of Flaring and Venting at UK Offshore Oilfields: An analogue for offshore Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects?

Further development of carbon budget and carbon balance work for different CO₂-EOR scenarios, with analysis of UK Continental Shelf and international venting figures and parameters for amounts of produced gas vented, alongside operational and engineering solutions to limit and mitigate venting.



  • 7.1 MB
  • 53pp

CO₂-EOR: Security of Storage

Assessment of reduction in CO₂ leakage risk through dissolution of CO₂ with quantification of CO₂-EOR solubility trapping.



  • 2.3 MB
  • 37pp

Measurement, monitoring and verification: Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Dioxide Storage

An assessment of some of the techniques and issues relating to MMV of CO₂-EOR projects and differences/similarities with CCS storage projects.



  • 5.8 MB
  • 98pp

Environmental Impacts of CO₂-EOR: The Offshore UK Context

Investigating and understanding the potential incremental environmental factors and impacts of undertaking offshore CO₂-EOR in the UK North Sea, including management of produced water.

CO₂ supply



  • 1.4 MB
  • 42pp

Ship transport of CO₂ for Enhanced Oil Recovery – Literature Survey

Review to investigate potential for shipping to transport CO₂ to offshore oil and gas fields for CO₂-EOR projects, focusing on options for loading/offloading strategies, buffering requirements and comparative costs against other transport modes.



  • 6.5 MB
  • 23pp

Offshore offloading of CO₂ review of single point mooring types and suitability

A look at different technologies for offloading CO₂ at sea from ships.



  • 3.9 MB
  • 117pp

Transportation and unloading of CO₂ by ship - a comparative assessment

A study into the functional requirements and optimisation of the CO₂ shipping chain, with a focus on the offshore offloading system. Feasibility of a generic approach to a ship-based CO₂ transport and storage system in the North Sea was considered. The project was a collaboration under the CATO-3 programme between TNO, Ecofys and SCCS with support from the SCCS CO2-EOR Joint Industry Project. The final report is available from the CATO website.



  • 1 MB
  • 19pp

Worldwide Comparison of CO₂-EOR: Conditions comparison of fiscal and industrial conditions in seven global regions where CO₂-EOR is active or under consideration

A comparison of incentives conditions for CO₂-EOR in seven major oil producing regions.